Graphical Presentation Of Tabular Data – Histograms (Part 2 of 5)

This is the second in a series of articles aimed at showing the benefits of presenting tabular data in a graphical format.

The first article explained how to carry out a simple survey which could be completed by children, the results being presented in a tabular form. Although the results could be reorganised to produce tables showing the data in different formats, such as by name in alphabetical order or in ascending order of height, the interpretation of the data is not immediate to the person reading it and conclusions may not be easily drawn. This not only causes difficulties for both the surveyor and the reader, but can be a little discouraging for the surveyor in trying to determine what they have achieved from their efforts.

We therefore need to display the data in an alternative format so that more can be achieved from the data gathered. One way of doing this is to use a graphical representation known as a histogram.


A histogram is the best graphical method to use for plotting and displaying continuous data such as height or weight. It is not so good for displaying data known as discrete or discontinuous, where the subject has distinct survey criteria such as hat sizes or colours.

Let us assume that the child’s height survey, already mentioned in article one, consisted of a sample of 25 children all of the same age. The smallest child was 1.105m tall and the tallest height was 1.687m.

The visual representation of data for a histogram is a chart where the data values are represented by vertical columns whose heights are equivalent to each of the values of one of the survey’s criteria and all these vertical heights are proportional to each other. The width of the column is immaterial but is usually the same for each value displayed. It is preferable that the survey data is recorded in ascending order of height so that the smallest child’s height is recorded first.

Using our survey example above, the vertical axis, or as it is more commonly known, the ‘y axis’, would represent the height of each child within the survey and would range from 1.0m to 1.7m in ascending order. All the surveyed height values of 1.105m to 1.687m would be contained within the chart. The horizontal axis, or ‘x axis’, would represent the 25 names of the children in the sample.

For each child’s name a point is plotted on the chart corresponding to the height of the child. A vertical narrow column is then drawn above the child’s name up to the height point. This column can be given its own colour to differentiate it from its neighbours on the chart. All the remaining children’s heights are plotted in a similar way. If two or more children have the same height then the columns are drawn adjacent to each other. This is where using different column colours or patterns makes identification easier.

This simple histogram will be a series of vertical columns, the shortest on the left and the highest on the right. It will be clear from this chart which child is the shortest, which is the tallest and where each child is placed within the survey. It will also show in which height ranges the children’s heights are concentrated. As stated previously, the survey results will be of greater benefit for interpretation if all the children were about the same age or in the same class at school. Different colours could be used for boys and girls to show how their height ranges varied, if at all.

This form of data presentation is more pleasing to the eye and understandable than any of the spreadsheet tables. The person presenting the survey will find their output much more satisfying and should have greater pride in their achievement.

The next article in this series considers the use of vertical column, horizontal bar and cylinder charts. Details will be provided as to when they should be used, how they are constructed and the benefits that they can provide, both to the presenter and their audience.

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Presentation folders give the impression of a well planned and superbly coordinated effort from the part of a business owner. It is used as a successful marketing tool for making an impression to your customers. Presentation folder printing creates your image, which is the most important factor in marketing of your business.

The documents need to tell many things about you which should be kept in an attractive presentation folder so that when you go out for a business meeting, your image counts. You need to have a well designed presentation folder for your business to make your activities truly professional, which will ultimately improve the status of your business.

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A presentation folder consists of the name and logo of your business house and should have place for holding the documents that you need to keep for your customers. The color combination should be noticeable so that there is style in the creation of presentation folders. It should qualify the trend in the business circle of your class so that you are accredited for competence.

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Pet Photographer Warns: Think Before Giving A Pet As A Present

When I was a child, my parents presented me with a big box on Christmas morning. I opened it. It was empty. The contents, a rescue puppy, had escaped somehow prior to the gifts grand entrance.

Over the next month, I grew very fond of the small puppy, and I found its occasional hiccuping to be odd and quirky. Then, one day, the puppy disappeared.

Years later, I was told that the puppy had distemper. My mother repeated several times over the ensuing years that she should have known to take the puppy to the vet, but she had never heard of distemper. It affected me. It obviously affected my Mother.

T’is the season for giving presents, and many people may be considering giving a pet. Puppies and kittens are unbelievably adorable. I know. That’s why I love to photograph them. That’s why I have been parent to a few. Their playfulness is beyond cute, and they do so many things making people sigh, “Awww!”

Unfortunately, that image is all too often the only image that the potential gift giver sees in their minds eye as they consider giving a puppy or kitten to a child who can’t even remember to brush their teeth! A gift to any person of any age is about commitment.

So, here is a reality check from a pet professional:

Puppies poop and chew, kittens sharpen their claws… things to consider before giving “the gift that keeps on living”… Kittens and puppies are living, breathing, and most importantly growing things. They grow bigger (and bigger and in some cases still bigger) and they get older.

Think about this:
- The average indoor cat lives 15-20+ years. Mine lived 19.
- Large breed dogs live 8+ years
- Smaller breeds dogs live 15+ years.

So, a six or seven year old child may be headed off to college and their parents will be left to care for a geriatric pet, with all the health issues and expense that goes along with ever increasing age. The tender care and feeding of a new furry addition is a family effort.

For adult humans, lifestyle can be an issue. In our cat-controlled-household, were we to get a dog, we could have issues. I would want a lap dog, my husband would like a dog with which he could jog. The image of my husband dragging a Chihuahua or Doxie behind him is almost as funny as a Retriever sitting on my lap. We travel, so bigger dogs present more challenges and less options for pet sitters. Neither of us is allergic, but many people are, so gifting a pet could become a really bad human health concern. A busy person’s daily schedule could leave the pet alone for hours. That’s not cool. All things to consider before gifting a pet.

Pets can be expensive. REMEMBER THEY LIVE, THEY EAT, THEY GET SICK, AND IN SOME CASES THEY GROW AND GROW. Without going too deeply into the totals, the dog that my husband wants to run with could eat 40 or more pounds of dog food per month. Vet care, food, pet training (maybe), and grooming (if required) cost money.

A pet is a very personal choice. Pets and people have personalities. The gesture of giving a pet while charming may bring a personality with irreconcilable differences. Do your research. If you’re a low-key kind of individual you probably don’t want to bring a Jack Russell Terrier into the mix. Likewise, if you’re a get up and go kind of guy, an English Bulldog is probably not going to be your ideal running partner.

Don’t get me wrong. I love pets. I ADORE PETS! Pets are wonderful companions. They love unconditionally. Giving the right pet to an older person may be a perfect pick-them-up. Then, there are the folks who have lost a pet. The trouble may be figuring out how much time is needed for the healing, but a pet with the right timing may be the perfect remedy.

A puppy and kitten are not a toy that can be returned. Pets do not teach responsibility. That means that the tender care and feeding of the new addition should be and probably will be a family effort. Coming from a person whose livelihood is pet dependent, the following advice may seem odd: THINK BEFORE GIVING A PET AS A PRESENT!